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Le précieux héritage d’Andrew Fuller (Michael Haykin)

The Precious Legacy of Andrew Fuller (Michael Haykin)

In his imposing biography of William Wilberforce (1759-1833), William Hague emphasizes that one of the greatest joys of this great abolitionist was his friendships and that it was for him an established rule that he "should not never miss an opportunity to connect with a good or useful man [1] ”. This meant, as his sons later observed, that his house was "seldom without guests"; While some of these arrived early enough in the morning for lunch, all of these people became an opportunity for Wilberforce to exercise his remarkable communication skills [2] . One of the guests Wilberforce welcomed to his home was the Baptist theologian Andrew Fuller (1754-1815), whose theological skills Wilberforce greatly admired [3] . One day, after learning of Fuller's arrival, Wilberforce hastened to introduce him to one of his sons, saying, "Do you know Andrew Fuller? ". "No, I've never heard of it" was the reply. “So you have to meet him,” said Wilberforce, “he's an extraordinary man whose talents have taken him out of a very poor condition. Wilberforce subsequently wrote in his account of the Baptist author's visit that he was "a man of considerable intellectual strength" but wearing "very simply the vestigiaruris (the imprints of rusticity) ”because he“ looked like a blacksmith in every way [4] ”. As Wilberforce's description said, Fuller had no formal education other than knowing how to read and write. However, his talents and the grace of God enabled him to become, as Charles Haddon Spurgeon (1834-1892) put it, "the greatest (Baptist) theologian of the nineteenth century [5 ] ”.

What has garnered so much praise from Wilberforce and Spurgeon are the books Fuller wrote, such as his skillful rebuttal of deism, that quintessential expression of God's enlightened thought. Or this solid biblical response to the hyper-Calvinism of his time, which had played a role in the devastation of many English Baptist communities during the 18 th century [6 ] . The latter in turn led to Fuller's growing involvement as secretary of what would later be called the Baptist Missionary Society, whose best known missionary was William Carey (1761-1834), one of his closest friends. by Fuller. In fact, as Missiologist Harry R. Boer observed, "Fuller's insistence on the responsibility of every man everywhere to believe in the gospel" which he set forth in his works against hyper- Calvinism, “was instrumental in the crystallization of Carey's missionary vision [7] ”.

Others would say, however, that we are no longer living in the 18 th century and that our fight is not against heresies such as the hyper-rationalism of deism or the quasi-fatalistic perspective. hyper-Calvinism. So why read Andrew Fuller? In what follows, I outline four reasons why the life and thought of Andrew Fuller are still important in our time - or simply put, the importance of Andrew Fuller.

Lessons Learned from Converting Fuller

Andrew Fuller was born on February 6, 1754 in Wicken, a small farming village in Cambridgeshire. He was the third and youngest son of Robert Fuller (1723-1781) and his wife Philippa Gunton (1726-1816), who rented and worked on dairy farms which they inherited [ 8] .When Fuller was 7 years old, his parents moved to the village of Soham, which is about 4 kilometers from Wicken. Once they settled in Soham, they joined the local Baptist Calvinist work. The pastor involved in this work was a certain John Eve (died 1782), a hyper-Calvinist, or, as Fuller puts it, a man whose teachings were "tinged with false Calvinism [9] ”. Several years later, Fuller remembered how Eve's teachings "were irrelevant to awakening consciousness" and "had little or nothing to say to the unconverted [10] ”. So despite Fuller's regular attendance at Baptist meetings, he paid little attention to the sermons he heard.

But at the age of 14, Fuller began to think about the meaning and purpose of life. However, the hyper-Calvinism that floated in the air he had breathed from an early age proved to be an obstacle to his conversion to Christ. This position held that, in order to come to salvation through Jesus Christ, the "pledge" that a person had to believe that he would be accepted by Christ was subjective. The conviction of sin and the mental torment resulting from that conviction were often regarded by hyper-Calvinists as being this pledge. From this perspective, these experiences were a sign that God was in the process of converting those who experienced them. This prospect of conversion was a direct result of the argument that the scriptures only invite sinners who are aware of their sins to believe in Christ. The consequence of this teaching was to place the essence of conversion and faith not in believing in the gospel, "but in the certainty that our beings will reap the result." Instead of turning his attention to Christ, the sinner was to examine himself inward to try to find evidence to show that he or she was experiencing the process of conversion and was one of the elect [11] . Ultimately, Fuller decided, "I will commit my soul, sinful and lost, into his (Christ's) hands - and if I perish, I perish!" It was therefore in November 1769 that Fuller found peace with God and rest for his troubled soul in the crucified Christ [12] .

What he experienced before and during his conversion ultimately taught him three specific things about conversion. First, Fuller saw the mistake of persisting in saying that only sinners who are aware and confused by their condition have the permission or the right to come to Christ. Later, Fuller would argue against this prospect, saying that the exhortation of the gospel to believe in Christ is sufficient authorization to come to the Lord Jesus. Second, Fuller has witnessed that genuine faith is Christ-centered and not turning in on yourself to see if there is a desire to know Christ and to accept his salvation with joy. Ultimately, Fuller recognized that true conversion is rooted in a radical change in affections of the heart and manifested in a lifestyle that seeks to honor God [13] . This understanding of the nature of true conversion still carries vital significance today.

Learning divine sovereignty and human responsibility

In the spring of his conversion, in 1770, Fuller was baptized and joined the Church of Soham.However, later that same year the Church was bitterly divided over whether or not sinful men had or did not "have the power ... to do the will of God and to keep themselves from sin" The controversy in the Church of Soham on this matter - which Fuller later described as "the worm and bile of my mouth [14] " - then led to the resignation of Pastor Eve in October 1771. Later Fuller commented that although this controversy had deeply troubled him, this was ultimately what led him to consider "views of divine truth" which subsequently appeared. in its major publications.

In January 1774, the Church asked him to preach regularly. Sixteen months later he was ordained as the second pastor of Soham Church. He was responsible for an assembly of 47 men who met in a rented barn. It wasn't until a year after Fuller left, having been called to Kettering Baptist
Church in Northamptonshire, that the Church finally had the financial means to build a permanent place.

During his first year in the ministry, Fuller was primarily occupied with reading and studying. Since the only Homiletical teaching he received was that of Eve, he preached like Eve and refused to urge the unconverted to come to Christ. But he grew increasingly dissatisfied with hyper-Calvinist reasoning. He began to feel that "his teachings were anti-biblical and, in many ways, deficient". But he did not see an easy solution to this problem. He felt he had to quietly make his way "out of a labyrinth [15] ".

Meanwhile, Fuller also delved into the work of two Baptist authors: the renowned evangelist of the previous century, John Bunyan (1628-1688), and John Gill (1697-1771), the dean of the 18th th century among the theologians of Particular Baptist . Fuller found many useful things in Gill's systematic theology, but he was deeply troubled by the obvious differences between Gill and Bunyan. They were both hardened Calvinists, but where Bunyan advocated freely offering salvation to sinners, without distinction, Gill disagreed. Fuller first came to the mistaken conclusion that although Bunyan was "a great and good man," he did not have as clear an understanding as Gill of the gospel. On the other hand, by studying the writings of other authors of the 16th th and 17 th centuries, in particular those of the Puritan theologian John Owen (1616-1683), he noticed that they too "freely invited sinners to come to Christ to be saved." In other words, Fuller discerned that as far as teaching was concerned, there was a definite difference not only between Bunyan and Gill, but more broadly, between 16th century Calvinism. > and the 17th th century and that of the beginning of the 18 th century.

In order to help him resolve this question concerning hyper-Calvinism, Fuller began to write a work which would later be titled The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (the Gospel worthy of any acceptance) , and that for its own instruction. A preliminary version was completed in 1778. Its final version was completed in 1781. Two editions of this work were published during Fuller's lifetime.The first edition, published in Northampton in 1785, had the following caption: The Obligations of Men Fully to Credit, and Cordially to Approve, Whatever God Makes Known, Wherein is Considered the Nature of Faith in Christ, and the Duty of Those where the Gospel Comes in that Matter of those to whom the Gospel reaches) The second edition, published in 1801, portrays the simpler subtitle: The Duty of Sinners to Believe in Jesus Christ (The responsibility of sinners to believe in Jesus Christ), a subtitle that aptly expresses the main theme of the book. As Fuller himself admitted, there are substantial differences between the first and second editions (1801). These differences concerned in the first place the doctrine of the particular redemption. The major theme of this work, however, remained unchanged: "Faith in Christ is the responsibility of everyone who hears, or has the opportunity to hear, the gospel."

This book, which marked its time, sought to be faithful to the emphasis of historical Calvinism while attempting to offer preachers no other alternative than that of communicating to their listeners the universal obligation of repentance. and faith. Fuller made clear his position in an article in his confession of faith he made upon his integration into the pastorate of Kettering Baptist Church, Northamptonshire, when he left Soham in 1783:

I believe it is the responsibility of any minister of Christ to simply and faithfully preach the gospel to all who will hear it; … And that it is their (the hearers) responsibility to love the Lord Jesus Christ and to put their faith in him in order to obtain salvation… So I believe in giving instructions, invitations, calls and warnings, freely and solemnly, not only consistently, but in a way that is directly relevant, to be a means, in the work of the Holy Spirit, of bringing them to Christ. I consider this part of my duty and I could not get away from it without being responsible for the blood of souls [16] .

What is critical about Fuller's method of seeking the truth in those years was his rigorous Biblicism. As his close friend John Ryland (1753-1825) wrote in his memoir of Fuller: “He had fewer resources of men or books than he could have had elsewhere; but he was compelled to reflect, pray, study the scriptures, and then take a stand [17] . "In a personal commitment written by Fuller in 1780, he speaks of his" determination not to adopt a second-hand principle, but to seek everything from the pure fountain of the Word (of God) [ 18] ”. Fuller was never afraid to go back to the scriptures and, based on the inherent word of God, to question what was considered to be orthodox. That didn't mean Fuller wasn't looking to learn from other Christian writers. We mentioned that he read the writings of John Bunyan, John Owen and John Gill. In many ways, the American theologian Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) was his theological mentor. But the minds of all these men were tested in the light of the inherent Scriptures.

The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation has led Fuller to an unintentional controversy . Shortly after the book's publication, Fuller was confronted with the writings of two London Hyper-Calvinists, William Button (1754-1821) and John Martin (1741-1820) This is a fact that deserves to be remembered. To be noted: Despite their attacks on Fuller, both Button and Martin subsequently enjoyed friendly relations with him. For example, Button was a strong supporter of the Baptist Missionary Society from a young age, until his death. As for Martin, in 1797 he could speak of the sincere respect he had for Fuller. While writing a response to Button, Fuller came under yet another attack from a representative from the other end of the theological spectrum, General (i.e. an Arminian) Baptiste Dan Taylor (1738-1816).

Later, Fuller was to describe his own theological position, which many have dubbed "fullerism," as "strict Calvinism." He sought to differentiate it from hyper-Calvinism, which was "more Calvinist than Calvin" and "bordering on antinomianism" as well as moderate Calvinism, which was essentially the theological perspective of the Puritan Richard Baxter (1615- 1691) and which Fuller considered to be “semi-Armenian”. Fuller considered Strict Calvinism to be “the Calvin system”. Fuller’s theology, which some today call “evangelical Calvinism,” was also that of his close friend William Carey as well as his future admirer C.H. Spurgeon. This theology was able to combine a passion for the salvation of sinners and missionary advancement of the Kingdom of God with a deep confidence in the sovereignty of God.

Lessons Learned from Other Fuller Controversies

Fuller's critical role in this controversy did not exclude his involvement in other vital aspects of the theological debate. In 1793 he published a detailed refutation of the Socinianism of Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) - The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems examined and Compared, as to their Moral Tendency ( The Calvinist and Socinian systems examined and compared in which relates to their moral tendency). Priestley's muscular campaigns resulted in Socinianism or Unitarianism, which denied the Trinity and divinity of Christ, to become the main forms of heterodoxy of English dissent in the last quarter of the 18th e < / sup> century.

Fuller's refutation of Socinianism clearly demonstrates the Christocentric nature of 18th-century Baptist thought. Fuller ably demonstrated that the early Church made the divine dignity and the glory of the person of Christ what he called "their precious theme." "

Then, in 1800, Fuller published The Gospel Its Own Witness , which was the definitive response of the Baptists of the 18th e century to deism, in particular that of Thomas Paine (1737-1809), who wrote pamphlets. This was one of Fuller's most popular works, published in three editions before 1802 and reprinted numerous times over the next 30 years. Wilberforce considered this work to be the most important of all of Fuller's. The work was presented in two parts. In the first part, Fuller compares and contrasts the moral effects of Christianity with those of deism. The second part of the book aims to demonstrate the divine origin of Christianity from the general consistency of the Scriptures.

Another controversy Fuller engaged in was that against the Sandemanians, the followers of Robert Sandeman (1718-1771), who stood out from other 18 th century evangelicals by their vision mainly intellectual faith They made their reputation by their cardinal theology principle that saving faith is "simple faith in the simple truth". In his sincere desire to exalt the total freedom of God’s salvation, Sandeman had sought to remove from saving faith any vestige of human reason, will or desire. In Strictures on Sandemanianism (1810), Fuller emphasizes several important points. He first says that if faith only comes from thought, then there would be no way to distinguish genuine Christianity from nominal Christianity. A nominal Christian mentally consents to the truths of Christianity, but these truths do not grab the heart in order to change the direction of his affections. Then, the knowledge of Christ is a very distinct knowledge. For example, knowing him involves much more than knowing certain things about him, such as whether he was born to a virgin or the details of his crucifixion. To know him implies a burning desire to commune with him and to enjoy the sweetness of his presence.

Through these three controversies, each of which can be traced to the influence of the enlightenment of rationalism, Fuller has emerged as a pastor-theologian very connected to his culture's vision. For example, Fuller was not spending his energy firstly fighting the battles that had occupied many of his 17th century Puritan predecessors, namely ecclesiological matters. If there is one thing Fuller can teach us about defending Christian truth, it is that we should always be alert to the challenges that confront Christianity in our particular circumstances.

Fuller's crucicentric piety: a mentorship

Finally, in an era where both those in the Church and those outside the Church are fascinated by spirituality, Fuller's piety has much to teach us. Take for example his conviction that the cross is found at the center of Christianity. In 1802, Fuller argued that the cross is "the central point in which all lines of gospel truth meet and unite. "Just as the sun is absolutely vital to the maintenance of the solar system, so" is the doctrine of the cross to the gospel system; it is its life [19] ”. Twelve years later, the year before his death, Fuller candidly declared that the atoning death of Christ was nothing less than "the blood that gives life to the gospel system [20] ”. From another perspective, he compared the preaching and teaching of Christ crucified to "a golden bond which, if loose, carries with it the whole chain of evangelical truth [21] ”. In sum, the cross is “the great peculiarity and the chief glory of Christianity,” and becomes the equivalent of the gospel itself: “the doctrine of salvation by the blood of Christ […] is, in its nobility, called the 'Gospel [22] ”.

Having this vision of Christ's death, then, it's no surprise that Fuller asserts that the doctrine of the cross is what “God in all ages has delighted to honor. In every place where the Church has enjoyed spiritual vitality and vigor - "times of great revival" as Fuller describes - Christ's atoning work has been exalted.Fuller emphasizes that this was the central doctrine of the Reformation and to which the Reformers gave a prominent place This was the main theme of the Puritans as well as of Fuller's spiritual predecessors, the Mavericks of the 17th century and from the beginning of the 18 th century [23] . During his time, the missionary victories of the Moravians in the West Indies, among the Eskimos and particularly in Greenland, had been triumphs of the cross: the "doctrine of atonement through the death of Christ [...] forms the great subject of their ministry [24] . "

So then, if any church or denomination rejects the doctrine of the cross, it is no better than what Fuller bluntly calls "a dead, putrid mass." If we get rid of the atoning work of Christ, "all Old Testament ceremonial appears to be nothing more than dead and irrelevant matter: prophecies lose everything that makes them interesting and dear. ; the Gospel is annihilated, or is no longer the Good News for lost sinners as it claims to be; religion is stripped of its most powerful motives, the evangelical dispensation of its defining glory, and heaven of its deepest joys [25] . For example, why were so many Anglican parishes from Fuller's day so uncrowded? The obvious answer, according to Fuller, was that "the majority of the clergy do not teach the doctrine of the cross ... there is nothing in their preaching that interests the hearts, or reaches the consciences of the people [26] . The perspective chosen regarding the cross is therefore a defining line between authentically biblical Christianity and nominal Christianity.

We are perhaps Christians by our heritage, versed in Christianity as in a science, able to discuss it, to preach it, to write to defend it; but if the crucified Christ is not vital to us as food is to the hungry and water to the thirsty, we are living dead. We can wander over other matters and survive, as in a crippled state; but to wander like this is tantamount to a disease which attacks vital organs, and the effect of which is normally death [27] .

Therefore, in a letter Fuller wrote in 1796, when Socinian thought posed a serious threat in the ranks of the English dissent, Pastor Baptiste said he could not recognize as a brother in the faith, anyone who “does not rely on the atonement sacrifice (of Christ) to be accepted before God [28] ”.

Fuller's writings are filled with reflections on the blessings corrected by the death of Christ. For example, he insisted that the cross is the only way by which sinners can be reconciled to a Holy God. When Fuller was asked in 1798 to provide a brief portrait of his early spiritual pilgrimage as a Christian, Fuller pointed out that at the time of his conversion he was convinced that "God would be perfectly righteous. if he sent me to hell, and I had to go to hell, unless I was saved by grace alone. "Grace alone," he explained, implies renouncing "all false trust" and trusting only in the death of Christ for our salvation.On another occasion he wrote that laying his life on the cross is "the only hope of a lost world, the only way to be accepted by God, and the only admissible request when we draw near to God [29]

This Baptist pastor never tires of repeating that inner peace and cleansing of the heart from the stains of sin that remain therein is found only in the knowledge and experience of Christ crucified. “The blood of Jesus is an open fountain for sin and filth [30] ,” Fuller said in his comments on the scene of Jesus washing the feet of his disciples. It is also only on the basis of the death of Christ that the Holy Spirit of God is given to dwell in the heart of the believer [31] . Moreover, it is at the cross that "the powers of darkness are stripped" that Satan "is crushed by the offspring of woman and his plans are exposed to the derision of the universe [32] ”. And in the Church, "his blood is the price of all our peace with one another." Where we agree on the doctrine of the cross, "there will be good rapport and support one to another in the simplest things [33] ".

It is also important to mention that on several occasions when Fuller was ill and believed he was on the verge of death, he reminded his friends that the only reason for his hope was the death of Jesus in his stead. . In the fall of 1801, when he was ill from an "almost constant cough" and "an almost constant fever" in his words, he wrote to a good friend, John Sutcliff (1752-1814), saying that 'he was calm about his possible departure.

My mind is calm and quite happy. I know whom I believed (2 Timothy 1:12). I have no apprehension about the position I hold: all my apprehensions are about myself. I am a weak, filthy creature, and have been a useless servant. I have no other hope than in a Savior who came to save the worst of sinners [34] .

Eleven years later, while still gravely ill, he told Sutcliff: “I have no joy except a sure hope of eternal life on the basis of the death of my Savior [35] . When he died in 1815, the last letter he sent to his close friend, John Ryland, expressed the same sentiments as those written to Sutcliff. After quoting a portion of 2 Timothy 1:12, Fuller went on to say:

I am a weak, guilty creature; but Christ is an almighty Savior. I have preached and written many things against abuse of the doctrine of grace; but this doctrine is all my salvation and my desire. I have no other hope, except that of salvation by sovereign and effective grace, through the atonement of my Lord and Savior. With this hope, I can calmly step into eternity [36] .

[1] William Wilberforce: The life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner (London: Harper Collins, 2007), 506.

[2] Robert Isaac Wilberforce and Samuel Wilberforce, the life of William Wilberforce (London: John Murray, 1839), III, 388. < / p>

[3] Wilberforce and Wilberforce, Life of William Wilberforce , III, 389.

[4] Wilberforce and Wilberforce, Life of William Wilberforce , III, 389. Hague does not mention the friendship between Wilberforce and Fuller .What is even more striking is that Hague fails to make mention of William Carey (1761-1834), Fuller's closest friend, particularly considering the space Hague reserved to describe Wilberforce's role in the freedom for English missionaries to minister in India

[5] As cited by Gilbert Laws, Andrew Fuller: Pastor, Theologian, Rope holder (London: Carey Press, 1942), 127.

[6] To see Fuller's response to deism, see The Gospel Its Own Witness (1800); and for his response to Hyper-Calvinism, see The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (1785 [1 e ed.]; 1801 [2 e ed .]).

[7] Pentecost and Missions (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1961), 24.

[8] Andrew Gunton Fuller, “Memoir” in The Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , edited by Joseph Belcher (1845 edition; repr. Harrisonburg, VA: Sprinkle Publications, 1988), I, 1. For more on the Fuller family, see Andrew Gunton Fuller, Andrew Fuller (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1882), 11–12.

[9] Fuller, “Memoir” in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 2 and 12.

[10] Fuller, “Memoir” in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 2.

[11] Andrew Fuller, Strictures on Sandemanianism, in Twelve Letters to a Friend in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 563–564. See also EF Clipsham, “Andrew Fuller and Fullerism: A Study in Evangelical Calvinism”, The Baptist Quarterly , 20 (1963–1964), 103.

[12] Fuller, “Memoir” in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 5–6.

[13] Clipsham, “Andrew Fuller and Fullerism”, 106–107.

[14] As cited by Ryland, Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , 355.

[15] Fuller, “Memoir” in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 13.

[16] Cited AC Underwood, A History of the English Baptists (London: Carey Kingsgate Press Ltd., 1956), 163–164.

[17] The Work of Faith, the Labor of Love, and the Patience of Hope, illustrated; in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London: Button & Son, 1818), 43.

[18] Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , 129.

[19] The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems examined and Compared, as to their Moral Tendency in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 182.

[20] Letters on Systematic Divinity in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 687.

[21] The Common Salvation in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 411.

[22] Calvinistic and Socinian Systems in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 181; The Believer’s Review of His State in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 303.

[23] God’s Approval of our Labor in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 190; The Common Salvation in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 412; Calvinistic and Socinian Systems in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 121; Decline of the Dissenting Interest in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , III, 486.

[24] Calvinistic and Socinian Systems in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 128.

[25] Christian Steadfastness in Complete Works of the Rev Andrew Fuller , I, 527; Calvinistic and Socinian Systems in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 191–192.

[26] Decline of the Dissenting Interest in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , III, 487.

[27] Letters on Systematic Divinity in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 691.

[28] Agreement in Sentiment the Bond of Christian Union in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , III, 490.

[29] Truth the Object of Angelical Research in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 665.

[30] Christ Washing the Disciples ’Feet in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 657.

[31] The Future Perfection of the Church in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 251–252; The Gospel Its Own Witness in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , II, 82–83, footnote.

[32] Truth the Object of Angelical Research in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 665.

[33] A Peaceful Disposition in Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , I, 538; Letter to Christopher Anderson, March 26, 1805 (Baptist Missionary Society Archives, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, University of Oxford).

[34] Letter to John Sutcliff, September 1, 1801 (Letters from Andrew Fuller, transcribed from typed text, Angus Library, Regent's Park College, University from Oxford).

[35] Letter to John Sutcliff, May 31, 1812 (Letter from Andrew Fuller).

[36] As cited by Ryland, Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller , 355.

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